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5 января 1945

1294-й день

Совинформбюро. В течение 5 января в районе БУДАПЕШТА наши войска вели бои по уничтожению окружённой в городе группировки противника и заняли 233 квартала…

К 5 января советская бронированная техника достигла Зуглё. Но между тем немцы и венгры продолжали удерживать значительные территории: северный Юпешт, западные кварталы Ракопалота и Пештюхея. Чуть южнее от советского прорыва они удерживали ипподром, окрестности Элешке, Кёбаньа и большую часть Пештсентержебета. По течению Дуная в любой момент в окружение мог попасть Шорокшар. В тот момент бои шли уже на острове Чепель, на высотах Кирайердё и Лакихедь.
Пятый день операции «Конрад»

Температура от -4 °C до -6 °C. Туманно. Плохая видимость. Состояние дорог и трасс — неизменное.

На правом фланге IV тк SS у Фельшёгаллы советские войска впервые за время операции предприняли контрнаступление… на глубину в 3 км.

На левом фланге IV тк СС силами 711-й пд напротив Грана по обе стороны от Жидоди стали возводить мощные противотанковые укрепления, которые должны были не только прикрыть Гран с юго-востока, но и блокировать продвижение советских танков в направлении Пилишсентлелека и Сентэндре.

  К 5 января в полосе наступления немецкой группировки были сосредоточены 31 полк артиллерии РВГК (в том числе 13 ИПТАП и 2 ЛАП), 8 артдивизионов и до 8 полков тяжёлых и гвардейских миномётов. Во вторую линию обороны были переброшены также все исправные танки 1-го гв. мехкорпуса генерала Руссиянова, 18-й тк генерала Говоруненко и 5-й гв. кавкорпус генерала Горшкова. Всего здесь было сосредоточено 1305 орудий и крупнокалиберных миномётов, а также около 210 танков (из них более 70 шт. — М4 «Генерал Шерман») и лёгких СУ-76.
  Благодаря такому сосредоточению сил, немецкое наступление к вечеру 5 января было остановлено. После боёв трофейной командой 4-ой гв. А было запротоколировано наличие сгоревших и разрушенных 5 танков «Тиф Б», 2 танков «Тигр», 7 танков «Пантера», 19 танков PzKpfw IV, 6 танков PzKpfw III, 5 самоходных орудий (в отчёте 75-мм «Фердинанд») и 19 бронетранспортеров и бронеавтомобилей. Кроме того, несколько груд металлолома не позволяло опознать в них тип бывшей боевой машины.
  У Дорог, Сомор, севернее Жамбек, Мань, севернее Чабди шли тяжёлые бои. Группами по 20–40 танков немецкие войска неоднократно атаковали наши позиции, но успеха не имели.

Боевой приказ командующего войсками 3-й гвардейской танковой армии № 072/оп
о наступлении войск армии в районе Енджеюв, Влощова, Радомско (5 января 1945 г.) Ф. 315, оп. 204045сс, д. 2, л. 4-7.
[Длинный, но нужный]

5 января 1945 признание Советским правительством Временного правительства Польской республики.
Немецкие войска форсировали Рейн в районе Страсбурга и вступили в Оффендорф.
Части коммунистической Народно-освободительной армии отошли из Афин.
Источник <http://www.humanhistory.ru/histos-418-1.html>
Friday, 5 January 1945

The Red Army prepares for the final offensive

Moscow announces recognition of Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland, aka Lublin Committee. UK, Washington announces continued support of Polish government-in-exile in London as provisional government of liberated Poland
In Moscow… The Soviet government gives formal recognition to the Polish Lublin Committee as the Provisional Government of Poland. The USA and Britain declare their continued recognition of the Polish government in exile, based in London.
Ceasefire between British troops and Greek communist forces. Alexander arrives to meet with Greek government and communist leaders

In Occupied Liberated Greece… The fighting between the British and the Greek Communist forces comes to an end in the Athens area. Field Marshal Alexander and British political representatives arrive in Athens for talks with the Communist leaders and the Greek government.

2nd Ukrainian Front engaged in Buda and Pest

Surprise attack on Liese-Aktion-office on Marnix St, Amsterdam

US 1st Army attacking around Consy, Dochamps, Odeigne, Lavaux, Lierneux, and Bergeval on northern flank of German Ardennes salient
US 3rd Army remains heavily engaged on southern flank of German Ardennes salient
US 7th Army attacking around Fraudenberg, Gros Rederching, Bitche, Wingen, Philippsbourg, Gambsheim, and Kilstett; under new German attacks around Gambsheim, Offendorf, Herrlisheim, and Rohrweiler
French 1st Army extending frontage to relieve US forces around Strasbourg

US 3rd Army reports reduced activity on its line while US 1st Army continues its attacks. There are German attacks just north of Strasbourg. Eisenhower’s decision to divide command responsibility for the Allied defenses around the bulge between Montgomery in the north and Bradley in the south is made public.

British 8th Army attacking around Cotignola and San Severo. US 12th Air Force grounded by poor weather conditions

U-11 taken out of service
Convoy KMF 38 departs the Clyde for Gibraltar. Convoy UC 51B departs Liverpool for New York City. Convoy MKS 75 departs Gibraltar for Liverpool

US 8th Air Force attacks airfields and transportation targets with 893 bombers, of which one lost, escorted by 537 fighters.

US 15th Air Force fighters attack a railroad bridge (Yugoslavia)
Mission No. 160 5 January 1945 Target: Zagreb East Sidings, Yugoslavia
The Group Air Inspector, Captain Trommershausser, got his first assignment as a Group formation leader. The target was the East Sidings of the marshalling yard at Zagreb, Yugoslavia. On take-off the planes in the four flight formation worked their way up individually through a solid stratocumulus cloud layer and assembled on top for the mission. As had been the case for months, the crews had been briefed to bomb targets in Yugoslavia only by the visual method. When the formation arrived at Zagreb they found their target covered by a nine-tenths layer of clouds. After four unsuccessful bomb runs they abandoned the target and returned their bombs to the base.

RAF Bomber Command sends 160 aircraft to attack Ludwigshafen during the day, 664 aircraft to attack Hannover, 140 aircraft to attack German supply lines at Houffalize in the Ardennes, 69 aircraft to attack Berlin overnight
4/5 January 1945
Royan: 347 Lancasters and 7 Mosquitos of Nos 1, 5 and 8 Groups. 4 Lancasters were lost and 2 more collided behind Allied lines in France and crashed.

This was a tragic raid with a strange – and disputed – background. Royan was a town situated at the mouth of the River Gironde in which a stubborn German garrison was still holding out, preventing the Allies from using the port of Bordeaux. The task of besieging the town had been given to 12,000 men of the French Resistance commanded by Free French officers appointed by General de Gaulle. The commander of the German garrison recognized the Resistance units as regular forces and the normal rules of warfare were observed. The French, lacking artillery, made little progress with their siege. The German commander gave the inhabitants of the town the opportunity to leave but many preferred to stay in order to look after their homes. It is believed that there were 2,000 civilians at the time of the raid.

On 10 December 1944, a meeting took place at the town of Cognac between French officers and an American officer from one of the tactical air force units in France. After a meal, at which much alcohol is supposed to have been consumed, the American officer suggested that the German garrison at Royan should be 'softened up' by bombing. He was assured by the French that the only civilians remaining in the town were collaborators - which was not correct. The suggestion that the town be bombed was passed to SHAEF (Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force), which decided that the task should be given to Bomber Command: ‘To destroy town strongly defended by enemy and occupied by German troops only.’ It is said that SHAEF ordered a last-minute cancellation because of doubts about the presence of French civilians but the order, if issued, was not received by Bomber Command in time.

The attack was carried out by 2 waves of bombers, in good visibility conditions, in the early hours of 5 January. 1,576 tons of high-explosive bombs – including 285 ‘blockbuster’ (4,000lb bombs) – were dropped. Local reports show that between 85 and 90 per cent of the small town was destroyed. The number of French civilians killed is given as ‘500 to 700’ and as ‘800’ by different sources. Many of the casualties were suffered in the second part of the raid, which took place an hour after the first and caught many people out in the open trying to rescue the victims of the first wave of the bombing trapped in their houses. The number of Germans killed is given as 35 to 50. A local truce was arranged and, for the next 10 days, there was no fighting while the search for survivors in wrecked houses continued.

There were many recriminations. Bomber Command was immediately exonerated. The American air-force officer who passed on the original suggestion to SHAEFwas removed from his command. The bitterest disputes took place among the Free French officers and accusations and counter-accusations continued for many years after the war. A French general committed suicide. De Gaulle, in his Memoires, blamed the Americans: ‘American bombers, on their own initiative, came during the night and dropped a mass of bombs.’ The German garrison did not surrender until 18 April.

66 Mosquitos to Berlin and 7 to Neuss, 2 Halifax RCM sorties. No aircraft lost.

Some of the Light Night Striking Force (No 8 Group) Mosquitos which attacked Berlin on this night flew 2 sorties each. These Mosquitos took off in the early evening, bombed Berlin returned and changed crews, and then flew to Berlin again. This method of augmenting the Mosquito campaign against Berlin was used several times during the long nights of midwinter.

5 January 1945
160 Lancasters of No 3 Group attacked the railway-yards at Ludwigshafen. 2 Lancasters lost.
1 Hudson flew a Resistance operation.

Multiple V-2 rocket launches against uncertain targets. German V-2 rocket hit the golf course at Croydon, London, England, United Kingdom, making a crater 40 feet wide.
Состоялось 12 пусков. Battery 444, Batt. 1./485. On this day V-2 rockets were launched at estate of Madesteyn, between Maeweg and Monsterscheweg in The Hague.

Volcano Islands USN Task Group 94.9 with three heavy cruisers and six destroyers bombards Iwo Jima. Japanese vessel T-154 sunk by USN Task Group 94.9. US 7th Air Force attacks Iwo Jima with 22 B-24 bombers
Bonin Islands… Admiral Smith leads a force of cruisers and destroyers to shell Iwo Jima, Haha Jima and Chichi Jima. There is a simultaneous attack by USAAF B-29 Superfortress bombers.
Bonin Islands USN Task Group 94.9 with three heavy cruisers and six destroyers bombards Chichi Jima and Haha Jima. Japanese vessel T-107 sunk by USN Task Group 94.9. USN destroyer David W. Taylor damaged by mine off Chichi Jima. USN destroyer Fanning damaged by shore battery off Chichi Jima. IJN midget submarine Ha-71 sunk by USN PB4Y-1 aircraft off Chichi Jima
U.S. Navy Task Group 94.9, under command of Rear Admiral Allan E. Smith, consisting of three heavy cruisers and six destroyers, together with USAAF B-24 Liberators escorted by P-38 Lightnings jointly attacked Japanese shipping and installations on Chichi Jima, Haha Jima, and Iwo Jima, Bonins. Approaching Chichi Jima, the USS Dunlap (DD 384), USS Fanning (DD 386) and USS Cummings (DD 365) damaged the landing ship T.107. The USS Fanning sinks her. Off Chichi Jima, the USS David W. Taylor (DD 551) was damaged by a mine and the destroyer USS Fanning by gunfire. Off Iwo Jima, the USS Dunlap, USS Cummings, USS Ellet (DD 398) and USS Roe (DD 418) sank the landing ship T.154.

USS Whale searched for survivors of a downed B-29 Superfortress bomber east of Tokyo, Japan without success.

Burma Shwebo is taken by the British 2nd Division of British 33rd Corps (Stopford) as the advance to the Irrawaddy River continues. Japanese retreat across the Irrawaddy River in Burma with General Slim’s troops in pursuit.
Burma Chinese 30th Infantry Division of Northern Combat Area Command completes crossing of the Shweli River. US 10th Air Force attacks airfields at Laikhka, Aungban, Kunlon, and Mong Long with 16 bombers, Japanese positions, supply dumps, and other targets around Namhkam, Mongmit, Mong Yaw, Hsenwi, Hpa-Pen, Man Ton, Tunghka, Man Peng, and Longhsu with more than 70 fighters
The Japanese retreat across the Irrawaddy River in Burma as Shwebo is taken by the British 2nd Division of the British 33rd Corps commanded by Lieutenant General Montagu Stopford.

USN escort carriers Manilia Bay, Savo Island, heavy cruiser Louisville, destroyer Helm, destroyer escort Stafford, LCI(G)-70, seaplane tender Orca, fleet tug Apache, RAN heavy cruiser Australia, destroyer Arunta damaged by Japanese kamikaze aircraft. USN destroyer escort Edwin A. Howard damaged in accidental collision with Leland E. Thomas. USN minelayer Monadnock (CM 9) runs aground off Ilin Island
Elements of US 8th Army and PI guerrillas capture Palauan on Mindoro Island
IJN destroyer escort Momi sunk, destroyer escorts Hinoki and Sugi damaged by carrier-based aircraft from USN Task Group 77.4 off Manila Bay
IJN cargo submarine YU-3 scuttled in Lingayen Gulf
Japanese air attacks continued against American Lingayen Gulf- bound forces against heavy antiaircraft fire and combat air patrol. Of the minesweeping group, the infantry landing craft (gunboat) LCI(G)-70 was damaged by a kamikaze. The small seaplane tender USS Orca (AVP 49) and fleet tug USS Apache (ATF 67) were damaged by near-misses of kamikazes, respectively. Kamikazes attacking the bombardment and escort carrier groups succeeded in damaging the heavy cruiser USS Louisville (CA 28) and destroyer USS Helm (DD 388), escort carriers USS Manila Bay (CVE 61), and USS Savo Island (CVE 78), and the destroyer escort USS Stafford (DE 411). Kamikazes also damaged the Australian heavy cruiser HMAS Australia and destroyer HMAS Arunta.
The destroyer escort USS Edwin A. Howard (DE-346), commanded by Lt. Commander F. Denfield, was damaged in a collision with the destroyer escort USS Leland E. Thomas (DE-420), commanded by Lt. Commander Leslie E. Rosenberg, off Mindanao, Philippine Islands.
Japanese escort destroyers approached the minesweeping group but turn away at approach of the destroyer USS Bennion (DD 662) and Australian frigate HMAS Gascoyne and sloop HMAS Warrego. Subsequently, planes from Task Group 77.4 (escort carrier group) sank the IJN Momi 20 miles southwest of entrance to Manila Bay and damaged the IJN Hinoki and IJN Sugi west of Manila Bay. The Japanese army cargo submarine YU 3, inoperable because of machinery problems, was scuttled in Lingayen Gulf to avoid capture.

China US 14th Air Force 28 P-40N and P-51D attacks airfields at Hankow and Wuchang, claiming 50 Japanese aircraft destroyed on the ground, one Chinese fighter was shot down; at Samah Bay, claiming 11 Japanese aircraft destroyed on the ground, also attacks bridges, supply depots, and other targets of opportunity at many locations. US air units complete transport of Chinese 14th Infantry Division and 22nd Infantry Division from Burma to China

East Indies Japanese vessels Kanko Maru, Shunsen Maru sunk by USN submarine Cavalla (SS-244), commanded by Lt. Commander Herman J. Kossler, in the Java Sea
US FEAF aircraft attack Celebes Island, Halmahera Island, and other targets. RAAF attacks targets on Celebes Island.

Kuril Islands USN Task Force 92 with three light cruisers and nine destroyers bombards Paramushiru Island
U.S. Navy Task Force 92 bombarded a Japanese airfield and fish canneries at Suribachi Wan, Paramushiro, Kurile Islands. TF-92 was commanded by Rear Admiral John L. McCrea and consisted of the light cruisers USS Concord, USS Richmond and USS Trenton, and eight destroyers.
Kurile Islands… Admiral McCrea leads three cruisers and nine destroyers to bombard Suribachi Wan.
Marshall Islands USN destroyer escort Brackett bombards isolated Japanese garrison on Taroa Island. The destroyer escort USS Brackett (DE 41) shelled Japanese installations on Taroa, Marshall Islands.
Japanese balloon bomb shot down by merchant vessel southwest of Kodiak Island

U-3016 was commissioned. Her first commander was Oberleutnant zur See Bernhard Meentzen.
U-3017 was commissioned. Her first commander was Oberleutnant zur See Rolf Lindschau.
USS Sennet departed Pearl Harbor, US Territory of Hawaii for her first war patrol.
USS Segundo arrived at Apra, Guam, Mariana Islands.
USS Boarfish departed Saipan, Mariana Islands.
USS Hawkbill arrived at Fremantle, Australia, ending her second war patrol.
***
CHANT 68 (UK): The Channel Tanker capsized and sank at Grangemouth Harbour, Stirlingshire. She was salvaged, but repairs were deemed uneconomic and she was scrapped.
Ha-71 (Imperial Japanese Navy): The Type C Kō-hyōteki-class midget submarine was bombed and sunk 2 miles west southwest of Chichi Jima by US Navy PB4Ys of Squadron VPB-111.
Ha-82 (IJN): The Type C Kō-hyōteki-class midget submarine was depth charged, rammed and sunk by USS Taylor in the Surigao strait.
HMS HDML 1163 (Royal Navy): The Harbour Defence Motor Launch was sunk in the Adriatic Sea by Kriegsmarine schnellboots .
Kanko Maru (IJN (909 BRT)): The auxiliary net layer was torpedoed and sunk in the Java Sea by USS Cavalla.
Lewis L. Dyche (US): The Liberty ship was sunk by a Japanese Kamikaze attack.
Momi (IJN): The Matsu-class destroyer was torpedoed and sunk 28 miles west southwest of Manila (14°00′N 120°20′E) by US Navy aircraft. The ship exploded and sank with all hands.
Shunsen Maru (IJN (971 BRT)):The auxiliary net layer was torpedoed and sunk in the Java Sea by USS Cavalla.
T-107 (IJN): The No. 103 class landing ship was shelled and sunk west of Haha Jima, (26°27′N 141°11′E) by USS Fanning.
T-154 (IJN): The No. 103 class landing ship was shelled and sunk off Iwo Jima, (24°27′N 141°20′E) by USS Dunlap, USS Cummings, USS Ellet, USS Roe (all USN)
***

Home front Brilliant sunny morning, but freezing.

Been thinking about the divers the other night. There seems no doubt that the one which I saw fell about 4 miles the other side of Peterborough, and it certainly seemed to me to pass 2 or 3 miles south of Wisbech, coming more or less from the N.E. Lining this up on the map, it would appear that it might almost have come in near Hunstanton or even Cromer, and may have been wrongly directed. Hope such mistakes don't often occur, or I shall regret that I ever came here.

Have noticed that divers often come in pairs. Wonder if they are carried two at a time, slung under the wings of a ‘plane, rather than one under the fuselage, as we are told in the Press. Mrs Saltmarsh said today that she saw a bomber this morning which appeared to be carrying something very like a flying bomb, and that she had “heard” it was intended to use these things against Germany very soon. Yet we know, and never cease to repeat that they are “cowardly”, “useless”, and “of no military value whatever!” Mrs Saltmarsh also said she had heard in a letter that a rocket had fallen near Reading.

Mr Girling came in today to get me to sign an agreement of my appointment here, which I did. One clause specifies that I am bound by 3 months notice on either side.

Listening to the talk among commercials in the lounge tonight, I learnt that potato clamps are known as “graves” in the Fens, and as “pies” in Yorkshire.
Deutsche U-Boote mit je zwei Kleinstunterseebooten vom Typ “Biber” an Deck laufen von norwegischen Häfen zu einem Angriff auf alliierte Geleitzüge im Nordmeer aus; die auf drei Tage angesetzte Operation muss jedoch ohne erkennbaren Erfolg abgebrochen werden.

OstseeDer deutsche Minenleger Elsaß (ex fr. Cote d’Azur) sinkt östlich von Samsoe (Kattegat) nach Minentreffer.

Die Gruppen No. 1, 5 und 8 des RAF Bomber Command greifen mit 354 Flugzeugen die von Deutschen besetzte Festung Royan an. 700 franz. Zivilisten und 40 dt. Soldaten werden getötet.

Am 5.1. läuft von Leyte die Lingayen Attack Force, Task Force 79 (VAdm. Wilkinson), mit dem XIV. Korps (MajGen. Griswold), Führungsschiff Mount Olympus, aus. Task Group 79.1 (RAdm. Kiland) mit der 37. Inf. Div. (MajGen. Beightler) auf 9 APA und 3 austral. LSI, 1 AP, 3 AK, 1 LSD, 1 LSV und 19 LST, 18 LSM, 6 LCT und 22 Support LCIs, Sicherung Zerstörer (Desron 22) Waller, Saufley, Philip, Renshaw, Cony, Robinson, DEs Abercrombie, Le Ray Wilson, Gilligan. - Task Group 79.2 (RAdm. Royal) mit 40. Inf. Div. (MajGen. Brush) mit 10 APA, 2 AP, 3 AKA, 3 LSD, 1 LSV und 19 LST, 31 LSM, 6 LCT und 21 Support LCIs, Sicherung: Zerstörer (Desdiv 48, 44) Bush, Halford, Conway, Eaton, Sigourney, Stembel, DEs Walter C. Wann, Richard W. Suesens, Oberrender, ferner Zerstörer (Desron 49) Picking, Isherwood, Luce, Sproston, Wickes, Young, Charles I. Badger. Luftsicherung (RAdm. Ofstie) mit Geleitträgern Kitkun Bay, Shamrock Bay, und den DEs John C. Butler, O’Flaherty.
Am 5.1. greifen Klein-U-Boote Ha-69, Ha-81, Ha-82 in der Sulu-See die Task Force 78 vergeblich an und verfehlen von der Flaggschiff-Gruppe – Task Group 77.1 mit Führungsschiff Wasatch (Chef 7. Flotte, Adm. Kinkaid, OB 6. Armee LtGen. Krueger), Kreuzer Boise (OB Südwestpazifik, Gen. MacArthur), Zerstörer Smith, Frazier, Coghlan, Edwards – und der Nahdeckungsgruppe (RAdm. Berkey) mit den Kreuzern Phoenix, Montpelier, Denver und den Zerstörern (Desron 21) Nicholas, Fletcher, Radford, O’Bannon, Taylor, Hopewell – die Boise knapp, Ha-82 wird durch Taylor versenkt. Vor Manila treffen die Bennion, Warrego und Gascoyne von der Minensuchgruppe auf die aus der Manila-Bucht ausgelaufenen jap. Geleitzerstörer Momi und Hinoki, letztere entkommt, Momi wird durch Bennion beschädigt und durch Flugzeuge versenkt. Ebenfalls am 5.1. starten von Mabalacat (Luzon) 3 Gruppen von 16, 4 und 15 Kamikazes gegen die Task Force 77. Die Kreuzer Louisville, Australia, der Geleitträger Manila Bay, der DE Stafford, der Seeflugzeug-Tender Orca, der Schlepper Apache und LCI(G)-70 werden durch Treffer, der Geleitträger Savo Island, die Zerstörer Arunta und Helm durch Nahtreffer beschädigt: 54 Tote, 168 Verletzte.

Eine US Task Group (RAdm. Smith) mit den Kreuzern Chester, Pensacola, Salt Lake City und den Zerstörern Dunlap, Fanning, Cummings, Ellet, Roe, David W. Taylor, beschießt Iwojima, Hahajima und Chichijima. Dabei wird einer der 5 Zerstörer, David W. Taylor, durch Minentreffer beschädigt. Zugleich Angriff von B-29 des 21st Bomber Command USAAF. Das japan. Landungsschiff T-154 wird versenkt, T-107 durch Artilleriefeuer eines Zerstörers beschädigt.

Eine US-Task Group (RAdm. McCrea) mit Kreuzern Raleigh, Detroit und Richmond und 9 Zerstörern beschießt Suribachi Wan bei Paramushiro (Kurilen).


Der Bischof von London, Geoffrey Francis Fisher, wird von König Georg VI., dem Oberhaupt der anglikanischen Kirche, zum Nachfolger des verstorbenen Erzbischofs von Canterbury, William Temple, ernannt.

Pepe LePew debuts in Warner Bros cartoon “Odorable Kitty” 
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