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Great War

Friday, January 22, 1915

Argonne: Heavy fighting at Fontaine Madame and St Hubert. Heavy fighting at Fontaine Madame and St. Hubert (Argonne) and at the Hartmannsweilerkopf. Deutsche Erfolge im Argonnerwald (General v. Mudra) und bei Pont-à-Mousson.
***

La bataille du Hartmannswillerkopf

Le 22 janvier, le bombardement redouble et l’abri du lieutenant est touché. Les Français cèdent alors et les survivants se rendent. Les Allemands font honneur aux courageux vaincus et c’est « l’arme à l’épaule » que ceux-ci défilent dans les rues de Mulhouse en se rendant en captivité.

Le sommet est alors aux mains des Allemands mais les deux camps comptent plus de mille morts et ce n’est que le début, la bataille pour le « HWK » n’a fait que commencer. Dès lors, les deux parties consolident leurs positions respectives. Des abris sont taillés dans la roche, des dépôts de munitions et des postes de secours sont érigés.
Français et Allemands construisent aussi des routes d’accès au champ de bataille ; ces derniers ont même construit deux téléphériques pour faciliter le ravitaillement des premières lignes. Rien que du côté allemand, plus de mille ouvriers participent aux travaux de construction et plus de 170 ânes et mulets sont utilisés pour transporter les charges lourdes. Ceci démontre la grande importance qui était alors accordée au Hartmannswillerkopf.
***
The casualties had been mounting up although the past few days had been fairly quiet. But early in the morning of Friday 22nd January a relief was being carried out for “C” Company who had been in the trench for three weeks, which in our part of the line proved to be the record for some time past (a very unhappy distinction for the sufferers) when a man was hit. We wired at once for the Stretcher Bearers and could plainly hear the man groaning. This was very unsafe for the companies coming into the trenches for it would indicate to the Germs, who could also hear, that there were men moving about. The men therefore got quickly into the trench at any point and were just in time, for the Germs evidently called a "stand-to" and opened rapid fire all along our front. However, a miss is as good as a mile.

The outgoing signallers were relieved in the evening (for we were not necessarily relieved with the companies), and on my way out I slipped over the Bank, and had a short rest in the ditch, getting “some” wet. A bath next morning, however, put me right in this direction.
***
Gestern abend wurde – in Erwartung etwaiger Gegenangriffe – höchste Alarmbereitschaft befohlen. Die Nacht verlief jedoch ruhig. Auch heute am Tage gab es keine Gefechtstätigkeit.
***
Verdun: Am 22. Januar gewann die 34. Infanterie-Division nordwestlich Four de Paris etwas Boden.
***
Aeroplane raid by the Germans on Dunkirk, and by the British on Zeebrugge.
Deutscher Luftangriff auf Dünkirchen. 12 German Ostend BAG aircraft bomb Dunkirk, but RFC 4 Squadron shoot down 1 Albatros B-type with rifle fire.
Belgium: RNAS drops 27 bombs on Zeebrugge U-boat base.

Destruction of a big German ammo depot, from which German forces operating near Rheims got their supplies, was reported in the official dispatches this afternoon. The explosion of huge supplies of powder resulted in many deaths.
French aviators located the ammo dump and furnished the range to allied gunners. The guns had scarcely been trained in its direction when a shell burst through the roof. A tremendous explosion shook the earth for miles around.
Before the depot was blown up French artillery succeeded in demolishing German field works in the same vicinity. Immediately following the explosion an infantry charge was ordered and the French took several of the enemy trenches.
***
Northwest Front, General A.E. Churin replaced Pleve as the chief of the Russian 5th Army, with HQ at Mala Ves. General Pleve was to form a new 12th Army, positioned on the Narew River line across the East Prussian salient.
Petrograd, the Tsar closed the State Duma.
9 (22) января – 29 марта (11 апреля) 1915. Карпатская операция.
Die erste Offensive Conrads begann am 22. Jänner 1915, doch verlief die Operation der neunzehn angesetzten Divisionen der 3. Armee von Anfang an nicht plangemäß. Die österreichischen Truppen waren durch die aus der serbischen Front herausgezogene 7. und 29. Division verstärkt worden, konnten aber keine nennenswerten Erfolge erzielen. Der einzige Erfolg zeigte sich bei der östlichsten Gruppe, obwohl die Offensive im Westen ihre Schwerpunkt haben sollte. Dieser Geländegewinn war wenig hilfreich, die verlängerte Front und die Versorgung der vorgerückten Truppen verschlang mehr Ressourcen als die vorherige günstige Verteidigungsstelle im Gebirge.

Kirlibaba (Südbukowina) von österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen zurückerobert. Southwest Front, strongly reinforced Austro-Hungarians recaptured Kiribila Pass in the Carpathians.

Syria: Cruiser HMS Doris gives food to Ruad Islanders. British landing-party from HMS Doris distributed food to destitute inhabitants of Ruad Island (Asis Minor).

East Africa: Kitchener forbids offensive operations, coast area evacuation begins on January 29.
Der englische Kreuzer “Astraea” beschießt die Insel Kwale (Deutsch-Ostafrika).

Golden Oriole (UK): The trawler struck a mine and sank in the North Sea 37 nautical miles (69 km) east by north of Lowestoft, Suffolk
Hetty (UK): The schooner was driven ashore at Goodwick, Pembrokeshire. Her crew were rescued.[21] She was refloated on 28 January.
Hydro (UK): The cargo ship foundered in the Atlantic Ocean off Rathlin Island, County Donegal with the loss of fourteen of her twenty crew. Four of the survivors were rescued by Mynegen (UK). The others reached land in a lifeboat.
Vauxhall (UK): The collier struck a submerged wreck and sank in the North Sea off Sheringham, Norfolk. All thirteen crew were rescued by a Royal Navy patrol vessel.
Windsor (UK): The trawler struck a mine and sank in the North Sea 55 nautical miles (102 km) east of Spurn Point, Yorkshire

UB 1 (строит. № 239, тип UB-I) F. Krupp Germaniawerft AG, Киль 1 ноября 1914 – 22 января 1915 – 29 января 1915.

German IIIrd High Sea Squadron passed through Kiel Canal into Baltic for exercises.
  Германский флот замышлял провести «Операцию 21» — вылазку к побережью Британии с постановкой минного заграждения в заливе Ферт-оф-Форт. В ней должны были быть задействованы линейные крейсера, а дальнее прикрытие должны были осуществлять линкоры. Но в январе 1915 года сильные штормы следовали один за другим, поэтому следующий выход в море линейных крейсеров Хиппера постоянно откладывался. На совещании 22 января 1915 года было решено перенести операцию на 6–7 февраля. В связи с этим ЛКР «Фон дер Танн» был отправлен на плановый 12-дневный ремонт, а III-я эскадра самых современных линкоров типов «Кайзер» и «Кёниг» ушла на учения в Балтийское море.

M Millerand, French Minister of War, inspected new armies in England.
Windisch Rudolph 22 Января 1915 г. направлен в школу военных пилотов в Лейпциге.

Циркуляр Гл. штаба № 4 от 9 января Утверждение соглашения на воинские перевозки срочными рейсами с пароходством Товарищества Коншин, Двинаренко и Кº по реке Иртышу.

Heavy snow in London.

Птн. 9 (22) января, Никки
  Солнечный морозный день. В 11 час. в угловой гостиной состоялось заседание Совета министров. Встали в 12.45. Завтракал Сандро Лейхтенбергский. Хорошо и долго погулял. В 4½ принял Боткина — отставного моряка. Андрей Владимирович пил чай. После обеда к нам зашёл Григорий от Ани и остался к чаю.

Großes Hauptquartier, 22. Januar.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Anhaltender Regen schloß eine größere Gefechtstätigkeit zwischen Küste und La Bassée-Kanal aus.
Bei Arras Artilleriekämpfe.
Einer von den südwestlich Berry-au-Bac vorgestern genommenen Schützengräben wurde, da er durch die einstürzenden Mauern einer Fabrik teilweise verschüttet war, aufgegeben und gesprengt.
Ein französischer Angriff nördlich von Verdun wurde leicht abgewiesen.
Nach den vorgestrigen Kämpfen südlich St. Mihiel hielten sich kleinere französische Abteilungen noch unweit unserer Stellungen. Durch einen Vorstoß wurde das Gelände vor unserer Front bis zur alten Stellung der Franzosen gesäubert.
Der Kampf um Croix des Carmes nordwestlich Pont-à-Mousson dauert noch fort. Ein starker französischer Angriff gegen den von uns wiedereroberten Teil unserer Stellung wurde unter schweren Verlusten für den Feind zurückgeschlagen.
In den Vogesen nördlich Sennheim warfen unsere Truppen den Feind von den Hohen des Hartmannsweilerkopfes und machten zwei Offiziere, 125 Mann zu Gefangenen.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Am Sucha-Abschnitt schritten unsere Angriffe langsam fort.
Östlich der Pilica nichts Neues. Wien, 22. Januar, mittags. Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Nördlich der Weichsel entwickelte sich gestern  lebhafterer Geschützkampf; unsere Artillerie wirkte namentlich in dem südlichsten Nida-Abschnitt und bei Chenciny, wo der Bahnverkehr der Russen durch Volltreffer auf eine Eisenbahnstation empfindlich gestört wurde, mit besonderem Erfolge. Auch südlich der Weichsel an allen Teilen der Front Geschützkampf mit wechselnder Stärke.
Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant
Freitag. 22. Januar 1915
Auf die Kriegsanleihe in Österreich-Ungarn werden 3306 Mio. Kronen (2215 Mio. Mark) gezeichnet; davon entfallen 2136 Mio. (1431 Mio. Mark) auf Österreich und 1170 Mio. (784 Mio. Mark) auf Ungarn.
Der Schweizer Bundesrat erlässt ein Ausfuhrverbot für verschiedene Produkte, u.a. für Schokolade, Essig, Weißblech, Kupferkabel und Kalk.

Letter from Theodore Roosevelt to Sir Edward Grey 22 January 1915
“To me the crux of the situation has been Belgium. If England or France had acted toward Belgium as Germany has acted I should have opposed them, exactly as I now oppose Germany. [От ить выблядыш!] I have emphatically approved your action as a model for what should be done by those who believe that treaties should be observed in good faith and that there is such a thing as international morality. I take this position as an American; who is no more an Englishman than he is a German, who endeavors loyally to serve the interest of his own country, but who also endeavors to do what he can for justice and decency as regards mankind at large and who therefore feels obliged to judge all other nations by their conduct on any given occasion.

I do not think you need to have me show a precedent for writing you; but, if you do, I shall ask you to turn to young Trevelyan's "Life of John Bright," pages 314 to 316. Bright was writing to Sumner at the time, when the bulk of the leading English politicians, from Palmerston and Derby to Gladstone and the editor of "The Times," were more or less openly hostile to the cause of the American Union and the freeing of the slaves. Bright's letters were written to Sumner in order that they could be read aloud by Lincoln to his Cabinet, which was actually done. He was afraid the United States would drift into war with England. His letters run in part as follows;
You know that I write to you with as much earnest wish for your national welfare as if I were a native and resident of your country. I need not tell you, who are much better acquainted with modern history than I am, that nations drift into wars. I fervently hope that you may act firmly and courteously (towards England). Any moderate course you may take will meet with great support here. I have no doubt you will be able to produce strong cases from English practice in support of your actions, but I doubt if any number of these will change opinion here. You must put the matter in such a shape as to save your honor and to put our Government in the wrong if they refuse your propositions.
At all hazards you must not let this matter grow to a war with England, even if you are right and we are wrong. War will be fatal to your idea of restoring the Union. I am not now considering its effects here; but I am looking alone to your great country, and I implore you, not on any feeling that nothing can be conceded and that England is arrogant and seeking a quarrel, not to play the game of every enemy of your country. Nations in great crises and difficulties have often done that which in their prosperous and powerful hour they would not have often done; and they have done it without humiliation and disgrace. You may disappoint your enemies by the moderation and reasonableness of your conduct; and every honest and good man in England will applaud your wisdom. If you are resolved to succeed against the South, have no war with England. Make every concession that can be made. Do not hesitate to tell the world that you will even consider what two years ago no power would have asked of you rather than give another nation a pretence for assisting your enemies. It is your interest to baffle your enemies even by any concession which is not disgraceful.

America then acted along the lines John Bright advised. I do not know whether his advice carried any weight. I have not the slightest idea whether you may not resent my giving advice; but I assure you that it is given with as much friendliness and disinterestedness as fifty odd years ago John Bright gave his to Sumner and Lincoln, and with as sincere a purpose to serve what I believe to be the cause of justice and morality; and with reversal of names the advice I am giving is the same as John Bright gave; and my reasons are the same.

There have been fluctuations in American opinion about the war. The actions of the German Zeppelins have revived the feeling in favor of the Allies. But I believe that for a couple of months preceding this action there had been a distinct lessening of the feeling for the Allies and a growth of pro-German feeling. I do not think that this was the case among the people who are best informed; but I do think that it was the case among the mass of not very well informed people, who have little to go upon except what they read in the newspapers or see at cinematograph shows. There were several causes for this change. There has been a very striking contrast between the lavish attentions showered on American war correspondents by the German military authorities and the blank refusal to have anything whatever to do with them by the British and French Governments… The only real war news written by Americans who are known to and trusted by the American public comes from the German side; as a result of this, the sympathizers with the cause of the Allies can hear nothing whatever about the trials and achievements of the British and French armies… It may be that your people do not believe that American public opinion is of sufficient value to be taken into account; but, if you think that it should be taken into account, then it is worth your while considering whether much of your censorship work and much of your refusal to allow correspondents at the front has been damaging to your cause from the standpoint of the effect on public opinion without any corresponding military gains. I realize perfectly that it would be criminal to permit correspondents to act as they acted as late as our own Spanish War; but, as a layman, I feel sure that there has been a good deal of work of the kind of which I have spoken in the way of censorship and refusing the correspondents permission to go to the front which has not been of the slightest military service to you and which has had a very real effect in preventing any rallying of public opinion to you…

Now, as to the question of contraband. You know that I am as little in sympathy with President Wilson and Secretary Bryan as regards their attitude in international matters as John Bright was in sympathy with Lords Palmerston and Derby and Mr. Gladstone in their attitude toward the American Republic when it was at war fifty years ago. But they speak for the country; and I have no influence whatever in shaping public action, and, as I have reason to believe, very little influence indeed in shaping public opinion. My advice, therefore, must be taken or rejected by you purely with reference to what you think it is worth.

President Wilson is certainly not desirous of war with anybody. But he is very obstinate, and he takes the professorial view of international matters. I need not point out to you that it is often pacificists who halting and stumbling and not knowing whither they are going finally drift helplessly into a war, which they have rendered inevitable, without the slightest idea that they were doing so. A century ago this was what happened to the United States under Presidents Jefferson and Madison--although at that time the attitude of both England and France rendered war with one of them, and ought to have rendered war with both of them, inevitable on our part…

I regard the proposed purchase by the Administration of German ship[ping] as entirely improper. I am supporting the Republicans in their opposition to the measure. I regard some of the actions of the Administration in, for instance, refusing to make public the manifests in advance and the like as improper. I think Great Britain is now showing great courtesy and forbearance. I believe that she has done things to our ships that ought not to have been done, but I am not aware that she is now doing them. I am not discussing this question from the standpoint of right. I am discussing it from the standpoint of expediencyOur trade, under existing circumstances, is of vastly more service to you and France than to Germany. I think I underestimate the case when I say it is ten times as valuable to the Allies as to Germany. There are circumstances under which it might become not merely valuable but vital. I am not a naval man, I do not know what the possibilities of the submarine are. But they have accomplished some notable feats, and if they should now begin to destroy ships carrying foodstuffs to Great Britain, the effect might be not merely serious but appalling. Under such condition, it would be of the utmost consequence to England to have accepted the most extreme view the United States could advance as to her right to ship cargoes unmolested. Even although this possibility, which I do not regard as more than a very remote possibility, is in reality wholly impossible, it yet remains true that the trade in contraband is overwhelmingly to the advantage of England, France, and Russia, because of your command of the seas. You assume that this command gives you the right to make the advantage still more overwhelming. I ask you merely to take careful thought, so that you shall not excite our Government, even wrongfully, to act in such a way that it would diminish or altogether abolish the great advantage you now have… Exactly how far you can go in any given case, I cannot say. But where it is so very important for you that there should be no American hostility, I hope you will not only avoid doubtful action but will not insist on your rights, even when these rights are clear, unless you are convinced that the gain to you will more than offset causing an irritation in this country which might have effects that I will not even contemplate, because they would cause me real horror…

Kölnische Zeitung publishes Russian atrocity story.

Daily Telegraph January 22 1915 The German air raid is still exercising the newspaper

9 января К.А.Сомов записал в дневнике: «Был на выставке «0, 10» — футуристов. Совершенно ничтожно, безвыходно. Не искусство. Ужасные ухищрения, чтобы сделать шум» (К.А.Сомов. Письма. Дневники. Суждения современников. М., 1979, с. 152).

В.И. Ульянов. Что же дальше? (О задачах рабочих партий по отношению к оппортунизму и социал-шовинизму) “Социал-Демократ” № 36, 9 января 1915 г.
  “Перед нами два лозунга. Один: война оппортунистам и социал-шовинистам, они — изменники. Другой: единство в России, в частности с Плехановым…

  …когда к пролетарской партии примыкают в значительном числе мелкобуржуазные элементы, способные мешать борьбе за социалистическую революцию, единство с такими элементами вредно и губительно для дела пролетариата. Современные события показали как раз, что, с одной стороны, назрели объективные условия империалистической… войны, а с другой стороны, десятилетия так называемой мирной эпохи накопили во всех странах Европы массу мелкобуржуазного, оппортунистического навоза внутри социалистических партий. Уже около пятнадцати лет, со времени знаменитой “бернштейниады” в Германии… вопрос об этом оппортунистическом, чуждом, элементе в пролетарских партиях стал на очередь дня, и едва ли найдётся хоть один видный марксист, который бы не признавал много раз и по разным поводам, что оппортунисты действительно враждебный социалистической революции, непролетарский элемент. Особенно быстрый рост этого социального элемента за последние годы не подлежит сомнению: чиновники легальных рабочих союзов, парламентарии и прочие интеллигенты, удобно и спокойно устроившиеся при массовом легальном движении, некоторые слои наилучше оплачиваемых рабочих, мелких служащих и т. д. и т. п. Война показала наглядно, что в момент кризиса… внушительная масса оппортунистов, поддерживаемая и частью прямо направляемая буржуазией (это особенно важно!), перебегает на её сторону, изменяет социализму, вредит рабочему делу, губит его. При всяком кризисе буржуазия всегда будет помогать оппортунистам, подавлять — ни перед чем не останавливаясь, самыми беззаконными, жестокими военными мерами подавлять — революционную часть пролетариата. Оппортунисты, это — буржуазные враги пролетарской революции, которые в мирное время ведут свою буржуазную работу тайком, ютясь внутри рабочих партий, а в эпохи кризиса сразу оказываются открытыми союзниками всей объединенной буржуазии, от консервативной до самой радикальной и демократической, от свободомыслящей до религиозной и клерикальной. …

 …всем буржуазным партиям, желающим влиять на рабочих, очень выгодно иметь показное левое крыло (особенно если оно не официально)…”
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