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Dardanelles

Konstantinopel, 5. März. Das Hauptquartier meldet:
Gestern abend in später Stunde versuchte eine feindliche Flotte unter verstärktem Feuer an einzelnen Teilen der Küste außerhalb des Feuers unserer Artillerie bei den Stellungen von Sedil-Bahr und Kum-Kale in Schaluppen Soldaten zu landen. Anfangs ließen wir den Feind gewähren, aber dann erwiderten wir das Feuer. 60 feindliche Soldaten, welche sich bei Sedil-Bahr ausschifften, flüchteten wieder in die Schaluppen und zogen sich unter Zurücklassung von 20 Toten und Verwundeten zurück. 400 feindliche Soldaten, die bei Kum-Kale an Land gesetzt waren, wurden vertrieben, wobei sie etwa 80 Tote verloren. Wir hatten 6 Tote und 25 Verwundete in den beiden Gefechten. Nach dem gestrigen Mißerfolg teilte sich die feindliche Flotte in mehrere Teile und bombardierte die offenen unverteidigten Häfen von Dikili, Sarmsak und Aivalik am Ägäischen Meer. Zwei Flieger, die den Golf von Saros überflogen, stürzten ins Meer; der Apparat fiel ebenfalls ins Wasser und verschwand. Von den übrigen Kriegsschauplätzen ist nichts Wichtiges zu melden.
*
Friday 5 March 1915
Phase 1 of the Dardanelles Campaign had been successful with the outer defences destroyed, beach and demolition parties landed, little damage to the bombarding ships, and few casualties. Now Adm Carden was ready for Phase 2 – sweeping the minefields, believed to consist of ten lines of mines starting 8 miles inside the entrance and reducing the gun and other defences right up to the Narrows. For the latter, naval forces included 14 British and 4 French capital ships and four British light cruisers, but the only minesweepers were eight slow trawlers.
Queen Elizabeth, dreadnought, Queen Elizabeth-class, 31,500t, completed January 1915, 8-15in/16-6in, taking leading part in first bombardment of the inner defences, anchored in the Aegean 2 ½ m W of Gaba Tepe and firing over the Gallipoli peninsula at the Narrows forts, spotting by seaplanes and battleship Albion within the Straits. Turks brought up mobile field guns and howitzers, mainly 12pdrs and hit her 17 times, no serious damage (Rn/Cn/D/da)

  Куин Элизабет, прибывшая из порта Мудрос, встав на рейде м. Кабатепе (п-ов Галлиполи) начала обстрел фортов Румели, Хамидие II, Намазгях в р-не п. Килидюльбахир.
  5 марта Queen Elisabeth с якоря на позиции в 1 морской миле от Габа-Тепе открыл перекидной огонь уменьшенными зарядами с дистанции 12 500 м по форту Гамидие. Корректирование велось весьма неудачно как кораблями, так и гидросамолетами. Скрытые турецкие полевые батареи внезапно открыли огонь по Queen Elisabeth, к-рая, получив в короткое время 18 попаданий, принуждена была отойти за предел досягаемости полевых батарей.

Battleship Queen Elizabeth fires 21,000 yards over Gallipoli Peninsula at Narrows’ forts until next day.

New Dardanelles attack opened with indirect fire by HMS Queen Elizabeth from Gulf of Xeros over Gallipoli Peninsula on Kilid Bahr and Chanack Forts. This attack Supported by HMSS Inflexible and Prince George and controlled by seaplanes. Queen Elizabeth fired 29 rounds; magazine in Fort L blown up; two other forts damaged. Some ships of the East India Squadron (Vice-Admiral Peirse in HMS Eurylas) in Smyrna Gulf bombarded Yeni Kale.
*
A cairn on the top would serve for laying over the peninsula, and this method she was to use unless forced to shift her berth or until she was directed to change her target to the Chanak or Asiatic group. As the distance would be about seven and a quarter miles, good spotting was essential. Seaplanes were to be used, but they were not too efficient, and the chief reliance had to be placed on ships within the Straits. But here was a serious difficulty. Owing to the failure of the attempts to dominate the guns and howitzers of the intermediate area, no spotting ship could anchor. They would have to keep moving, and it was consequently necessary to tell off no less than three battleships for the work. The ships selected, Cornwallis, Irresistible and Canopus, were to run up in succession at twelve minute’ interval to within five miles of Kephez Point — that is, about as far as Eren Keui — then turn across the Straits and back, keeping ready to fire on Messudieh, Dardanos, and White Cliff should they show activity. The spotting would thus be done at a distance of from seven to eight miles. During the operation the Agamemnon was to watch the entrance, and the Dartmouth the Bulair lines, in order to report movements of troops, while the Prince George was to keep under way close to the Queen Elizabeth, to protect her from any stray guns in the vicinity.
Even if all wait well, long-distance firing under these conditions was none too promising. As it was, the necessity of getting the demolition parties of the previous day and the rescued marines back to their ships caused much delay in starting. It was not till noon that the Queen Elizabeth was able to fire her first shot at Rumili Medjidieh (No. 13), the most advanced of the Kilid Bahr group. Even then the seaplanes were not available. The first to go up had engine trouble at 8,000 feet and nose-dived into the sea a complete wreck; the pilot of the second received a bullet wound and had to return, so that the spotting had to be done entirely by the ships. As the firing was across the line of observation, range could be fairly well controlled, but direction was mere guess work.
To add to the difficulties all the ships were exposed the whole time to fire from shore guns, which they had the greatest difficulty in locating. None of the spotting ships was touched, but the Queen Elizabeth, in spite of all the Prince George and the Admiral himself in the Inflexible could do to protect her, was hit seventeen times by mobile guns which the sweeping operations appear to have attracted. She was not seriously damaged; the fire was no more than annoyance. What was worse was that, owing to the late start, three or four hours of good visibility had been lost, and the usual afternoon mirage began to confuse the spotting ships before the work was half done. Still, after eighteen rounds at Rumili the Queen Elizabeth seemed to drop her next ten shots into the fort, and she was directed to shift to Namazieh (No. 17). In doing so she must have hit Hamidieh II (No. 16), which lay between the two, for its magazine was seen to blow up. But every minute the mirage was getting worse. The third seaplane now went up, but by this time the light was so bad that further firing was useless. The pilot had only made one report when, after five shots at Namazieh, the Queen Elizabeth was ordered to cease fire.
What the effect had been it was impossible to tell. It was thought that Rumili and Hamidieh were probably done for, and though the howitzers and field guns had been active, the intermediate forts were not observed to open fire. All, however, that could be known for certain was that the system of spotting by a succession of ships on the move with a constant change of spotting officers would never do. A single ship must be used, in spite of the certainty of her having continually to shift out of the field of the enemy’s fire. For the present it was the best that could be done, but Admiral Carden had now seen enough to convince him that without good aerial observation firing was little better than waste of ammunition. The seaplanes were clearly not equal to the work. They could not rise high enough to clear the rifle-fire, and he now reported that if he was to do any good with indirect firing he must have aeroplanes.
Possibly, however, better results could be obtained if he were permitted to send the Queen Elizabeth to a carefully-selected position inside the Straits. This had been forbidden by the Admiralty’s instructions to Admiral Carden, but he had already applied for a modification of the order that she was not to be hazarded inside, and in the early hours of March 5 the risk was approved, on condition that all precautions were taken, and that there was to be no undue expenditure of ammunition or wearing of her 15” guns.
*
5 марта Карден приступил к следующей фазе операции — уничтожению укреплений в Узостях. Главная роль отводилась линкору «Куин Элизабет» с его огромными 15-дм орудиями. Уже давно стала ясна необходимость иметь береговой НП для корректировки огня, но ничего для создания такого пункта не было сделано. Это предопределило неуспех обстрела. Согласно плану «Куин Элизабет» должна была стать на якорь у западного берега п-ова возле мыса Габа-Тепе и оттуда с дистанции 72 кабельтова обстреливать перекидным огнём укрепления Килид-Бахр на европейском берегу. После этого планировалось перенести огонь на Чанак. Из-за большой дистанции требовалась особенно тщательная корректировка, поэтому полагаться на самолёты было нельзя. Но гаубичные батареи не позволили бы кораблям-корректировщикам стать на якорь в проливе. Поэтому «Корнуоллис», «Иррезистебл» и «Канопус» должны были ходить в проливе галсами. «Агамемнон» должен был следить за входом в пролив, «Дартмут» — за Булаирским перешейком. «Принс Георг» должен был держаться возле «Куин Элизабет», чтобы прикрыть линкор от огня полевых батарей.
Корректировка оказалась исключительно сложной. Турецкие батареи, несмотря на все старания «Принс Георга» и «Инфлексибла», добились 17 попаданий в линкор. К счастью, они не причинили серьёзных повреждений. «Куин Элизабет» обстрелял форты Румели, Намазие и Хамидие II. Действия самолётов-корректировщиков оказались абсолютно неудовлетворительными, и результаты обстрела остались неизвестны. 5 марта адмирал Карден получил разрешение ввести линкор в пролив, если будут обеспечены все меры безопасности.
*
British naval forces commence bombardment of Smyrna (ends 9 March) / Mer Egée : la Royal Navy bombarde Smyrne (aujourd’hui Izmir en Turquie) / Aegean: 2 Royal Navy battleships and cruiser Euryalus shell Smyrna (and on March 7 and 28). Turks sink 5 blockships making Smyrna Port unusable to U-boats (Allied fear).

  Из Севастополя к берегам Турции вновь вышла эскадра Черноморского флота.
  5 марта первый лорд английского адмиралтейства Черчилль сообщил главковерху, что «великобританское правительство самым серьёзным образом надеется, что когда наступит момент прорыва английского флота в Мраморное море, русский флот одновременно с началом атаки Дарданелл союзниками начнёт систематическую бомбардировку с дальнего расстояния внешних фортов Босфора, чему придаётся первостепенное значение».
Было условлено, что командующие обоими флотами — адм. Эбергард и адм. Карден — войдут в постоянную связь между собой и согласуют свои действия в зависимости от хода событий у Дарданелл. Идя навстречу союзникам, ставка предписала черноморскому командованию «прекратить подвоз угля из Зунгулдака и войти в связь с командующим союзным флотом, действующим у Дарданелл, и руководствоваться его пожеланиями».


Greek government offers naval and military forces for operations at the Dardanelles. Greek Premier (M. Venizelos) proffers Greek fleet and troops to Entente for operations at the Dardanelles (see 6th, and February 15th and September 21st).
Tags: history, navy, war economy, Двуглавый, былое и думы, мелкобританцы
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