1) Word transport costs
([Imports (CIF) / Exports(FoB] – 1)
Transport costs of course fell with containerisation
, but this improvement had yielded most of its benefits by the late 1990s. Estimates of the overall cost of trade based on the ratio of CIF prices (which incorporate transport costs) and FoB prices (which do not) actually suggest that transport costs slightly increased over the last 20 years; before1995 they had fallen almost continuously (Baldwin, R and D Taglioni (2007), Trade effects of the euro: A comparison of estimators, Journal of Economic Integration
, 22(4): 780–818.).
2) в СШПётоукЁ нет предприятий, способных производить
сталь для трубопроводов первого контура; компенсаторы объёма; корпуса реакторов; парогенераторы; заготовки для корпусов реакторов и ПГ. Всё это оборудование изготавливали и поставляли итальянские, южнокорейские и японские производители…
4) the FT
Over the past three months, China has built
four new missile shelters on Fiery Cross, boosting the number of installations on the reef to 12, according to satellite images provided to the Financial Times by the Center for Strategic and International Studies.
China has also expanded radar facilities on Fiery Cross and two other disputed reefs — Subi and Mischief — in the Spratly Island chain, and started building underground structures that Greg Poling, director of CSIS’s Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative, assesses will be used to store munitions.
“We haven’t seen any slowdown in construction, including since the Mar-a-Lago summit,” said Mr Poling. “The islands are built and they are clearly militarised, which means they already got over the hard part. Now every time they put in a new radar or new missile shelter, it is harder for the world to get angry. They are building a gun, they are just not putting the bullets in yet.”