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Timeline

  26 августа (7 сентября) 1856 г., на 4 года раньше намеченного срока, состоялось торжественное открытие канала, приуроченное к дню коронации нового Императора. Во время праздничного фейерверка в Выборгском замке вспыхнул пожар, нанёсший значительный урон ансамблю.
  В строительство канала были вложены более 12 млн. серебряных марок, но эта сумма была меньше сметной, и расходы “окупились” значительно быстрее, чем ожидалось, — за 25 лет. /* Жалкие 25 лет, Карл! */
*
1896, an electric car built by the Riker Electric Motor Company wins the first auto race in the US, at the Narragansett Trotting Park–a mile-long dirt oval at the state fairgrounds that was normally used for horse racing–in Cranston, Rhode Island.
***

On September 7, 1903, the FAM (Federation of American Motorcyclists) was officially formed during a meeting of 93 enthusiasts at a clubhouse in Brooklyn. The meeting was chaired by George H. Perry, and one notable attendee was George M. Hendee of the Indian Motocycle Company, who brought 109 membership pledges from the New England area.

A constitution was drawn up, and officers appointed, with R.G. Betts of New York as president. Article I, section 2 of the constitution of the newly created FAM stated: “Its objects shall be to encourage the use of motorcycles and to promote the general interests of motorcycling; to ascertain, defend and protect the rights of motorcyclists; to facilitate touring; to assist in the good roads movement; and to advise and assist in the regulation of motorcycle racing and other competition in which motorcycles engage.” The constitution also recorded annual membership dues of $2, and named several committees, including: Membership; Legal Action; Competition; Roads, Touring and Hotels; and Transportation and Facilities.
***
1914 Monday
Germany reported ready for peace; Oscar Straus and diplomats confer with Secretary Bryan.

  Mit einem persönlichen Telegramm an den US-amerikanischen Präsidenten Woodrow Wilson versucht der deutsche Kaiser Wilhelm II., die bislang im Krieg neutrale US-Regierung in Washington zu einer deutschfreundlichen Haltung zu bewegen. Dabei weist Wilhelm II. auf angebliche Greueltaten französischer und britischer Soldaten sowie der belgischen Zivilbevölkerung hin.

Though the war is less than one month old the British government has announced that 15,000 of its men have died to date.
Canada: Shell committee first meets: 32,449 troops parade at Valcartier Camp.

  Die russische Regierung in Petrograd untersagt den Verkauf von Spirituosen im gesamten Land für die Dauer des Krieges. In der Vergangenheit kam es wiederholt zu Problemen mit angetrunkenen Soldaten und Zivilisten.
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North Sea
REVIGO, trawler, 230/1907, G F Sleight, Grimsby-reg, Skipper W Lewis, Grimsby for fishing. Mined in Humber field (Nautilus), sank 25 miles E½N of Spurn Head (L – 33 miles E by N of; wi – 33 miles N by E of Spurn Head LH, in 54.05N, 00.20E) (+L/Lr/Mn/gy/wi)

British submarine strikes German warships in Bremerhaven Harbor.
Pacific Cable cut between Banfield and Fanning Island by Nurnberg.
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*
Belgium: Officers tell of German atrocities; charges that Germans destroyed Dinant and shot many inhabitants.
*
 Fall der Festung Maubeuge (40 000 Gefangene, [377] Geschütze erbeutet, 14 Festung). / Mauberge captured by the Germans with many prisoners and guns.

It is now plain that the German march on Paris has been deflected; Allies force Germans back in 160-mile battle from Nanteuil-le-Hardouin to Verdun and report defeat of Crown Prince’s army; Germans defeat Belgians near Melle and march to occupy Ghent; repulsed at Capelle-au-Bois.

Struggle on the Ourcq and Petit-Morin.
.
***
.
Marne: Maunoury in great peril; Gallieni sends 6,000 reserves (brigade of 7th Division) and rushes them in 600 Paris motor taxicabs (‘Taxis of the Marne’) 18 ½ miles to the Ourcq (night 7–8) with others by road and railway.

BEF’s advance, delayed by Kluck’s armoured car screen and picked detachments, now reaches river Petit Morin in the ‘gap’. D’Esperey pushes back Bülow’s right wing for 6 miles. Moltke to his wife: ‘This day is the decisive day’.
Sir John French's first despatch (published on 9th).
*
***
***

  Le 7 septembre: Maunoury cherche enfin à déborder Von Kluck par le nord pendant que le reste de son armée pousse en direction de l'Ourcq. Les deux actions échouent. Von Kluck rappelle alors ses deux autres corps pour en finir avec Maunoury, quitte à agrandir la brêche existante et dégarnir l'aile gauche de Von Bülow. Risque considérable, mais la 6° armée ne peut tenir face à une 1ère armée allemande au complet. La brêche n'est masquée que par 2 corps de cavalerie et une division de flanc-garde. Or l'un de ces corps de cavalerie se replie, ouvrant carrément la voie aux britanniques.
  La BEF avance, mais sans connaitre l'existance de ce vide. Ils auraient pu prendre à revers le 2° corps allemand, autre occasion manquée. La 5° armée, épuisée, avance prudemment, franchit le grand Morin et s'arrête peu aprés.
  Les 9°, 4° et 3° armées françaises résistent aux coups de butoirs allemands.
I  l n'y eut rien de décisif ce jour là. Le seul événement majeur est la chute du camp retranché de Maubeuge au terme de dix jours de siège, alors que la place aurait pu tenir plus longtemps si elle avait été mieux commandée.
***
*
Sir John French, commander in chief of the BEF, begins his first official dispatch from the front during Great War, summarizing the events of the first several weeks of British operations.
*
American NSA ambulance corps first on field near Paris.
*
21. I.-D., 25. I.-D. Pargny, Sermaize
22. I.-D. 25.08.–07.09. Transport nach dem Osten von der Namur
26. (Württembergische) I.-D., 27. (Württembergische) I.-D. 07.09.–11.09. Kämpfe um die Höhen südlich Sommaisne
39. I.D. 22.08.–07.09. Schlacht vor Nancy-Epinal
*
*
Bataille du Grand Couronné de Nancy Грязныя подробностЯ.
*
Tsar approved the formation of the All-Russian Union of Zemstvos for the Relief of the Sick and Wounded, with Prince G.E. Lvov as chairman.
*
German light cruisers sank the Russian steamer Oleaborg near Raumo, in the Gulf of Bothnia.
*
 Sieg des schlesischen Landwehrkorps in Russisch-Polen über das russische Gardekorps.

German 8th Army opened the Battle of the Masurian Lakes, shattering half of the Russian XX Corps and quickly took Biala. Fighting lasted until the 15th, with the Russians losing over 60,000 dead and 45,000 prisoners, while German losses were put at 10,000.

East Prussia: Francois with 40 battalions and 200 guns routs 16 Russian battalions and 30 guns (XXII Finnish Corps) from Biala area until September 11.
.
***

German Landwehr Corps and the Austro-Hungarian 1st Army advanced in heavy fighting at Tarnawka. There was fresh struggle between the Russians and Austro-Hungarians around Grodek. Dankl beaten. He orders retreat to river San on September 9. Reformed Russian Fifth Army resumes advance. Russian cavalry reached the Carpathian Mountains.

That Austria feels that she is unable to stem the tide of the Russian invasion is shown by captured documents in which the dual monarchy has reportedly appealed to Germany for aid. A dispatch from the Russian government says the main Russian force is now ready to move against Germany. Russia will have the use of 20 Army Corps, or 800,000 men for its next campaign.
*
Vienna makes hasty preparations for defense; possibility of famine.

Second Austrian invasion of Serbia begins: the Drina crossed in force.
Serbia: Second Austrian offensive (night 7–8) along river Drina with 4 corps, only gains northern bridgehead at Parasbnitsa in Sava loop for 4,000 casualties from Fifth Army.
Hungary: Serbian Cavalry Division up to 13 miles north of Kupinovo bridgehead.
*
Italy: Socialist Reform Party endorses neutrality.
*
East Africa: German reverse near Tsavo.
German West AfricaNaval operations started against Duala, Cameroons, with armoured cruiser Cumberland, old light cruiser Challenger, gunboat Dwarf, local converted gunboats of the Niger Flotilla – Alligator, Balbus, Crocodile, Ivy, Moseley (believed Mole), Porpoise, Remus, Vampire, Vigilant, Walrus taking part.
*
Pacific: Spee arrives at Christmas Island: his detached cruiser Nürnberg cuts Pacific cable between Banfield and Fanning Island
Japan: Diet votes $26.5 million war credit.
*
.
На торжественном открытии здания Управления почт , Восьмая авеню, NY, открыт один из самых известных девизов, заявляющих преданность работе: “Ни снег, ни дождь, ни жара, ни мрак ночной не помешают этим посыльным быстро осуществить назначенный рабочий цикл”, сделанный зодчим Уильямом М. Кендаллом на лицевой стене. Он воспроизвёл Геродота. / Built in 1912, the building is famous for bearing the inscription: “Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds.” Formerly the General Post Office Building, it was officially renamed in 1982 as a monument and testament to the political career of the nation’s 53rd Postmaster General.
1915 Tuesday
Italy declares cotton absolute contraband of war.
Britain: War Policy Committee finds for conscription but 4 members dissent. / Unrest among railway workers in South Wales.
Im Deutschen Reich tritt eine Änderung des Reichsmilitärgesetzes in Kraft, durch die eine nochmalige Musterung von Wehrpflichtigen im Krieg möglich wird, die früher für dauernd untauglich erklärt worden sind.

  Der Berliner Polizeipräsident erlässt eine Verordnung, durch die der Branntwein- und Spirituosenausschank in Berlin eingeschränkt wird. Der Ausschank wird u.a. zwischen 21 Uhr und 9 Uhr sowie in allen Lokalen mit weiblicher Bedienung untersagt.
*
North Sea
Four sailing smacks on fishing grounds captured by U-boats and sunk by bombs 44 miles ESE of Lowestoft, Suffolk.
By UB.2 (Werner Fürbringer):
CONSTANCE (2), 57grt, (un – 44 miles SE of) (+L/un)
EMMANUEL, ketch-rigged, 44/1905, William F White, Lowestoft-reg LT169 (L - 40 miles off; un – 44 miles SE of) (+L/bm/un)
By UB.16 (Hans Valentiner)
EMBLEM (2), ketch-rigged, 1899, 50grt, William F White, Lowestoft-reg LT97 (+L/bm/un)
VICTORIOUS (1), 43grt (+L/un)
__________
John Evelyn, sailing vessel, 57grt. Bombed and damaged by Zeppelin rigid airship in London's Millwall Dock (L only)
Bay of Biscay
CARONI, 2,652 / 1904, Royal Mail Steam Packet Co, Newcastle-reg, sailing London for Bordeaux with stores. Shelled and captured by U.20 (Walther Schweiger) in the evening, sunk by torpedo 15 miles W of Chassiron Point, Ile d'Oleron, off La Rochelle (+L/Mn/te/un)
Leicestershire, passenger & cargos steamship, 8,059 (ms – 8,040)/1909, Bibby Bros & Co, Liverpool. Chased by U-boat, escaped (+ms)
fr. Bordeaux (4,604 GRT), barley 4200 tons
*
Destruction of submarine U27. [На самом деле 19 авг.]
*
 С 25-го до 27 августа никаких особых событий не произошло; «Новик» всё время стоял в Аренсбурге.
*
Austrians enter Dubno; successful Russian-counter-offensive on Sereth at Tarnpol and Trembovia.

  Wolkowysk genommen. Armee Prinz Leopold von Bayern im Vorgehen gegen den Zelwianka- und Rozanka-Abschnitt. Rückzug der Russen hinter die Ikwa (Wolhynien). Heftige Kämpfe bei Tarnopol und an der Sereth-Mündung.

Galicia – Battle of Tarnopol (until September 16): Russian Ninth and Eleventh Army counter-offensive on river Sereth and at Trembovia as Austrian First Army enters Dubno. Former takes 17,383 PoWs and 33 guns.
*
Russians repulse Turks at River Arkhave and annhilate Turkish corps at Olti (Armenia).
East Persia: 300 British soldiers get to Birjand, join Russians.
*
Иркутск: 25 авг. 2-й Иркутский полевой подвижной лазарет развернулся в гор. К. на 110 кроватей.
25 августа.
  Подведены итоги пчеловодческой выставки в Иркутске. На ней было продано жидкого центробежного мёда 69 пудов, сотового мёда 2 пуда, медового напитка 4 ведра и медовых пряников 3 пуда. Посетили выставку 7588 чел.
*
Serbians drive enemy from works on Danube and Drina fronts.
*
…исполняя желание Жоффра, Бэкон обстрелял своими 3 мониторами гавань Остенде; в помощь им были приданы мониторы «Генерал Кроуфорд» (два 12-дм орудия), М-25 (одно 9.2-дм орудие) и броненосец «Редутейбл» — бывший «Ривендж».
День был ясный, и герм. батареи отвечали исключительно хорошо с дистанции 90 каб. Их огонь был настолько действенен, что мониторам пришлось отойти. Они были счастливы, что ушли благополучно, т.к. оказалось, что 28-см орудия батареи «Тирпиц» могут метко стрелять до дистанции 160 каб. Результаты действий обеих сторон были так же незначительны, как и первый раз.
North Sea: Dover Patrol and French bombardment of Ostend with air-spotting, monitor Lord Clive damaged by 5 shells from new Tirpitz Battery (4 x 11-in guns)
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*
Zeppelin raid on east coast of England, 50 casualties, 7 killed. / Luftangriff auf die Londoner Hafenanlagen.

Two Army Zeppelins successfully bombed London on 7–8 September: SL 2 dropped bombs on the Isle of Dogs, Deptford, Greenwich and Woolwich, and LZ (44) 74 was forced to drop weight on its approach and scattered 39 bombs over Cheshunt, before heading on to London and dropped devices on Bermondsey, Rotherhithe and New Cross. Eighteen people were killed and 28 injured, property damage totalled £9,616. Fog and mist prevented any aircraft taking off, but anti-aircraft guns fired at LZ 74 with no effect.

Although these raids had no significant military impact, the psychological effect was considerable. The writer D.H. Lawrence described the raid in a letter to Lady Ottoline Morrell:
* Then we saw the Zeppelin above us, just ahead, amid a gleaming of clouds: high up, like a bright golden finger, quite small (…)
* Then there was flashes near the ground — and the shaking noise.
* It was like Milton — then there was war in heaven. (…)
* I cannot get over it, that the moon is not Queen of the sky by night, and the stars the lesser lights.
* It seems the Zeppelin is in the zenith of the night, golden like a moon, having taken control of the sky; and the bursting shells are the lesser lights.
*
*
French aeroplane squadron bombs Freiburg, Lens, Saarburg, etc.; Ein französisches Flugzeuggeschwader bombardiert den Bahnhof und militärische Anlagen in Freiburg im Breisgau.
  Bombardement de Fribourg-en-Brisgau :
  Le 7 septembre, une mission de bombardement sur la ville de Fribourg-en-Brisgau est ordonnée par le général commandant en chef en représailles. Les équipages suivants ont participé à cette mission :
  Cne Maurice Happe / Soldat Louis Pautrat – MF 11 n° 749 – Bomb.
  Caporal Henri Pigot / Soldat Georges Varnet – MF 11 n° 742 – Bomb.
  Caporal Gaston Vial / Soldat Marcel Nepveu – MF 11 n° 745 – Bomb.
  Caporal Rolland Longueteau / Soldat Marcel Grélat – MF 11 n° 740 – Esc.
  MdL Pierre de Gromard / Brig Carlo de Biagioni – MF 11 n° 744 – Esc.
  Cinq obus de 155 et un de 90 tombent sur la ville. L'équipage MdL de Gromard / Brigadier Carlo de Biagioni tire 100 cartouches contre un Drachen. L'équipage Caporal Rolland Longueteau / Soldat Marcel Grélat tire 100 cartouches sur un Aviatik. Le MF 11 de l'équipage Caporal Gaston Vial / Soldat Nepveu prend de l'altitude trop difficilement. Son équipage, pour gagner du poids, se déleste de 2 obus de 90.
*
MF63 Omer Paul Demeuldre (Pilot Sgt Teulon) claim his first Albatros at Bois de Forges
No. 6 Sq. RFC Lanoe George Hawker (Bristol Scout (1611)) claim EA (DES) at Bixschoote
*
 In Athen wird entdeckt, dass zwei Telegraphenbeamte im Auftrag von zwei französischen Korrespondenten seit April Telegramme der deutschen, österreichisch-ungarischen und italienischen Gesandtschaft sowie von König Konstantin I. unterschlagen und nach Russland weitergeleitet haben.
*
Niedermayer-Hentig party leave Herat for Kabul
*
North Cameroons: 2nd Allied attack on Mora (until September 9) fails, more efforts abandoned on September 15.

HMS Severn, River Monitor, Tirene Bay, Mafia Island. 5.0am: Weighed and proceeded alongside SS Kendal Castle. Coaling, received 117 tons.
*
German Note handed to U.S.A. Ambassador at Berlin justifying sinking of Arabic. / Die deutsche Regierung teilt den USA in einer Note mit, der britische Passagierdampfer „Arabic“ sei am 19. August versenkt worden, da der deutsche U-Boot-Kommandant den Eindruck gehabt habe, das Schiff wolle das U-Boot angreifen.

Exchange of cordial messages between Tsar and President Poincare.
***
1921 The San Antonio River floods on this day in 1921, killing 51 people and causing millions of dollars in damages. The flood was caused by some of the heaviest rainfall ever recorded in Texas.

In 1923, a new initiative was taken at the International Criminal Police Congress in Vienna where the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC) was successfully founded as the direct forerunner of Interpol. Founding members included police officials from Russia, Austria, Germany, Belgium, Poland, China, Egypt, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland and Yugoslavia.

On September 7, 1927, Farnsworth’s image dissector camera tube transmitted its first image, a simple straight line, to a receiver in another room of his laboratory at 202 Green Street in San Francisco. / The first fully electronic television system is achieved by Philo Taylor Farnsworth.

1929
Business Week. Уже в первом выпуске высказано предположение, что народное хозяйство находится не в лучшем состоянии.
  Глава советской внешней разведки М.А. Трилиссер отправил в берлинскую резидентуру телеграмму: „Ваш новый источник А-201 нас очень заинтересовал. Единственное наше опасение заключается в том, что вы забрались в одно из самых опасных мест, где малейшая неосторожность со стороны А-201 или А-70 может привести к многочисленным бедам. Считаем необходимым проработать вопрос о специальных условиях связи с А-201“.
*
1948 The first use of synthetic rubber in asphaltic concrete, Akron Oh

1949 Постановления СМ СССР об организации массового производства компрессионных бытовых холодильников на фреоне R12. ???

1950 Slightly more than two months after the United Nations approved a U.S. resolution calling for the use of force to repel “the communist North Korean invasion” of South Korea, the Security Council rejects a Soviet resolution that would condemn the American bombing of Korea. /* Хе-хе, болтун — находка для шпиёна. */
1963
Каманин Н.П.:
 У меня был генерал Одинцов, он вернулся из Крыма и через неделю должен приступить к и.о. нач. ЦПК. Военный совет ВВС решил освободить его от этой должности, а министр Малиновский не разрешает снимать его с работы. Главком притих и боится идти против министра. Но я твёрдо уверен, что Малиновский ошибается и делает глупость, отменяя решение Военного Совета. Буду принимать все необходимые меры, чтобы убрать Одинцова из ЦПК.
  Завтра в 7:15 я, Терешкова и Быковский вылетаем в Болгарию.

1965
U.S. Marines and South Vietnamese forces launch Operation Pirahna on the Batangan Peninsula, 23 miles south of the Marine base at Chu Lai. This was a follow-up to Operation Starlight, which had been conducted in August.
.
1965: First flight of the prototype Bell Model 209 attack helicopter. Test pilot William T. “Bill” Quinlan was in command.

1967 U.S. Secretary of Aggression Defense Robert S. McNamara announces plans to build an electronic anti-infiltration barrier to block communist flow of arms and troops into South Vietnam from the north at the eastern end of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ).

1988 Security & Exchange Comm accuses Drexel of violating security laws. / September 1988: In a civil complaint, the Securities and Exchange Commission accuses Drexel and Mr. Milken of insider trading, stock manipulation, and assisting in tax law violations.

1997 At Dobbins Air Reserve Base, Georgia, test pilot Paul Metz piloted the extremely maneuverable [??????] F-22 Raptor in its first flight. A new stealth fighter with the ability to cruise supersonically, the F-22 would replace the venerable F-15 for air-superiority missions.

1999
A 5.9 magnitude earthquake rocks Athens, rupturing a previously unknown fault, killing 143, injuring more than 500, and leaving 50,000 people homeless.Viacom announces it is buying CBS for $36 billion, making it the largest media acquisition in history
***
2005 Apple Computer releases iTunes 5 for both Mac and Windows users.

2008 The government seizes control of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae temporarily putting them in a conservatorship with plans to inject up to $100 billion each. / On September 7, 2008, Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) Director James B. Lockhart III announced pursuant to the financial analysis, assessments and statutory authority of the FHFA, he had placed Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac under the conservatorship of the FHFA.

2015
“Трансаэро” перешла под операционное управление “Аэрофлота”.
***
Железный конь придёт на смену Будённовской лошадке! (C)
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